Finland, Boreal Forest
The boreal forests in North Karelia, the easternmost region of Finland, hold great ecological, economic, and societal (e.g., recreational) value. As a result of climate change, their growing conditions will be largely affected, and many natural disturbances are likely to increase. Thus, there is a need to adapt forest management practices to enhance forest resilience.
Especially wind damage tends to increase due to shorter frozen soil periods. More frequent bark beetle outbreaks are expected, which may have cascading effects on forests. Browsing of young trees by moose is another typical forest management challenge in the region.
In our Finnish case study, current forest management focuses either on timber production, recreational values or nature conservation, depending on the area. The intensity of forest management ranges from more to less intensive, and further to no human intervention.
The predominant boreal tree species are Norway spruce, Scots pine and broadleaved trees such as birches. However, there will be a need to increase mixed forests and decrease Norway spruce monocultures to boost forest resilience under the changing climate.