Research results: iPad mobile laser scanning can help assess forest carbon stocks, but is more effective in mature, regular stands

By Arne Van Wolputte, KU Leuven

Measuring the amount of plant material (biomass) in forests is important for two main reasons: it helps us understand how climate change is affecting forests, and it allows us to calculate how much carbon these forests are absorbing, which helps counteract and offset emissions. In a previous blog post, we introduced the research of KU Leuven MSc student Arne Van Wolputte, exploring the transition from traditional aboveground biomass assessment methods to innovative, digital techniques such as mobile laser scanning. We also discussed the potential of the novel Arboreal Forest iPad app to make carbon Monitoring, Reporting and Verification effective and affordable while maintaining its simplicity. In this new article, Arne presents the results of his investigation, looking at how his use of the app in biomass inventorying affected the accuracy and efficiency of biomass measurements.


Accurately assessing above-ground biomass in forests is crucial for understanding the impacts of climate change and quantifying carbon sequestration in offsetting projects. Traditional forest inventory methods, involving a tape measure and height estimation devices, are accurate but time-consuming and expensive to conduct. The integration of laser scanning technology into commercial devices, such as the iPad Pro, presents a promising avenue for the forestry sector to reduce inventory costs. These systems offer the potential to efficiently and accurately assess biomass while ensuring accessibility for stakeholders.

We explored the transition from traditional methods to Arboreal Forest, a forest inventory app with laser scanning functionality, in two forest environments covered by the INFORMA project’s case studies: the Atlantic and Mediterranean biogeographic regions.

Main findings

Our findings revealed that the Arboreal Forest app’s effectiveness varied depending on the forest environment. In the Atlantic case study, measuring the above-ground biomass took about 60 minutes per plot with the traditional method, while only 16 minutes were required when Arboreal Forest was used. The biomass estimations by Arboreal Forest were nearly as accurate as those observed with traditional tools, with a 0.58% difference in measured biomass.

The Mediterranean case study presented a different narrative. A less consistent performance was observed here due to larger densities and higher share of small diameter trees; larger densities increased surveyor errors whereas small diameter trees posed a challenge for the built-in laser scanner. Here, traditional methods required 54 minutes whereas Arboreal only required 30 minutes. However, a 27% underestimation by Arboreal was observed.

Overall, accuracy improved with tree size, and efficiency gains were particularly pronounced in environments with large-diameter trees.

Arboreal Forest as an alternative?

The use of high-tech applications in forestry is increasing. The introduction of Terrestrial Laser Scanning systems in the forestry sector was met with enthusiasm due to the numerous possibilities and advantages they could offer. However, the price tag, weight and requirements of expertise for gathering and processing the collected data hindered widespread application of the technique. So, the search for alternative solutions continued. The introduction of laser scanning systems in mobile devices provided some solutions.

Contrary to many other Mobile Laser Scanning applications, Arboreal Forest does not generate 3D point clouds, limiting co-registration errors and post-processing requirements. The collected data can be easily downloaded as .CSV files through Arboreal’s website, making the implementation of Arboreal in forest inventories even more user-friendly.

Tips and tricks for in-field use

  1. In both case studies, we noted that both the accuracy and the efficiency of Arboreal Forest improved if a lower Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) threshold was applied. We recommend setting the lower limit to 7 cm.
  2. Trees growing perpendicular to steep slopes can pose a challenge for Arboreal Forest. As per good inventory practices, the DBH should be measured from the uphill side of the tree. Slanted trees should be measured from the side from/to which they grow.
  3. Arboreal Forest allows DBH measurements of irregularly shaped trees from two different viewpoints. From our experience, this practice resulted in a more accurate DBH assessment for irregularly shaped trees.
  4. Using technology for fieldwork brings along an important challenge: battery life. In this study, the iPad’s battery would survive about half a day before recharging was required. We recommend having a least 20% battery charge remaining before starting a new plot, of course depending on forest metrics such as tree density. We recommend bringing an appropriate power bank.


The Arboreal Forest app emerged as a viable option for forest inventories, offering significant time savings and cost-effectiveness, particularly in mature, regular stands. Recommendations for optimizing its usage include implementing a lower DBH threshold (7 cm) and avoiding its use in young, dense, and highly diverse forest stands. Our research contributes valuable insights into the application of mobile laser scanning systems in forestry and underscores Arboreal Forest’s potential to improve inventory practices and efficiency, aiding in climate change mitigation efforts.

Getting the best from our forests: 5 ways to manage them well

By Doan Ho and Laura Nolan, EIT Climate-KIC

In our urgent fight against climate change and loss of biodiversity, managing forests sustainably has become a key strategy for protecting the environment and regulating ecosystems. We know that forests, often called the lungs of the Earth, play a key role in keeping our climate in check by absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen. But they do more than that – they’re also essential for effective land management and agriculture.

Yet we’re not always harnessing their full potential. Despite extensive investments in research, it still remains a challenge to turn the knowledge of effective forest management into practical action that make sense to actors in the sector, policy makers and citizens. This gap between knowing and doing shows how important it is to involve all affected parties in shaping strategies for sustainable forest management and land use. This not only helps people understand and find policy recommendations more relevant, but it also makes them more willing to accept change.

Here’s the thing – forest management impacts more than just those directly involved in forestry or environmental advocacy. It concerns everyone. Even if you’ve never set foot in a forest, the way they are managed affects your daily life. The choices we make about forests influence the food we eat, the air we breathe, the places we live and work, and a myriad of other human activities.

Eight essential impacts of sustainable forest management and forest conservation

So, how can we boost sustainable forest management and create more resilient land use for us and future generations? How can we enhance collaboration among diverse stakeholders to achieve these objectives effectively?

1. Foster and strengthen connections among actors. Collaboration sparks innovation, and by uniting foresters, policymakers and citizens, we can pioneer inventive solutions that bring everyone on board. Systems mapping is crucial: identifying key players and understanding their primary interests, interactions and individual challenges is paramount.

This guiding principle informs the holistic strategy of INFORMA led by our project partner EIT Climate-KIC. Using their ‘challenge-led system mapping’, Climate-KIC is fostering collaboration among industry, academia, civil society, and policymakers – stakeholders that often work in silos – to address the complexities of the European forest system. By collectively understanding stakeholders’ interests, we aim to pioneer new approaches for sustainable forest management, promoting environmental stewardship and resilience.

Example of an international knowledge mapping network, specifically on how knowledge is shared between actors. This figure was generated during the first stakeholder workshop of the INFORMA project, hosted by EIT Climate-KIC

2. Maximise the potential of existing forests. Instead of fixating solely on expansion, it’s important to efficiently make use of our current forested areas. This involves implementing adaptive strategies that address the evolving landscape and confront the impacts of climate change, including fires, storms, pests, and diseases.

3. Embrace science-driven methodologies. Robust scientific insights are essential. That’s why projects like INFORMA are conducting satellite research, data mining, and climate modelling to craft comprehensive best practices for sustainable forest management across Europe, that can be used as examples for all. It’s only by harnessing the power of science that we can make well-informed decisions that safeguard our forests for generations to come.

4. Translate knowledge into actionable policies. Simple accumulation of scientific data falls short: there is an urgent need translate this into policies that drive tangible change, for example by transforming scientific findings into policy recommendations for national and regional governments. This then feeds into policies that can, for example, improve the effectiveness of carbon certification schemes and ensure that our forest management practices align with global climate change goals.

5. Educate and empower. Awareness serves as the catalyst for transformation. By educating the public about the significance of sustainable forest management and involving citizens in decision-making processes, we can nurture a collective dedication to safeguarding our forests. Whether through grassroots initiatives or governmental policies, each initiative contributes to the preservation of our natural resources.

Implementing these steps represents a significant leap forward in advancing sustainable forest management. Forests transcend trees; they are intricately linked to all facets of our existence. By embracing these principles and executing tangible strategies, we can chart a path towards a future where forests prosper, ecosystems thrive, and humanity lives in harmony with nature.

EU Carbon Removal Certification Framework: A high-quality outline that does not guarantee the value of the final picture

Commentary by Simon Martel, Clothilde Tronquet and Julia Grimault, Institute for Climate Economics

The European co-legislators have reached an agreement on the content of the future European Carbon Removal Certification Framework (CRCF). Negotiations were swift and fruitful, against a backdrop of a general step back in the adoption of the various Green Deal texts. While today sees environmental issues played off against farmer’s livelihoods, this draft regulation brings these two elements together to create the conditions for investment in the transition of agriculture and forestry sectors. However, several details still need to be clarified to ensure that this framework actually enables effective and ambitious climate financing.

A focus on carbon removals and emission reductions related to soils

While the Commission’s initial proposal only focused on removals in the strict sense, the co-legislators have decided to broaden the scope to include emission reductions related to agricultural soils, whether they concern CO2 or N2O. This extension makes sense regarding the interconnected nature of the cycles of these two gases, but the negotiations were not a foregone conclusion. The experience of the Label bas-carbone in France has shown that this integrated GHG assessment approach at farm level ― combining emission reductions and removals ― is more effective in ensuring the transition. It also avoids perverse effects where CO2 sequestration in soils improves, despite a concomitant increase in N2O emissions, for example through nitrogen fertilisation of grasslands.

But we are only halfway there, as methane emissions, mainly linked to livestock, are not included, even though they account for 65% of European agricultural emissions. The provisional agreement between the European Parliament and the Council sets a review clause in 2026 for their possible inclusion and calls on the Commission to produce a pilot methodology by then. Let’s hope that the scope will be extended, so that livestock farming can also benefit from the funding provided by the CRCF to kick-start the necessary transition.

Lastly, the distinction of emission reductions and removals into separate units is to be welcomed, as it will ensure transparency in the funders’ communications and claims.

Any economic model for temporary credits?

Discussions on the risk of reversal (also known as risk of non-permanence) in soils and biomass took centre stage during the initial debates of the expert group supporting the European Commission in drafting certification methodologies. The risk of reversal may be the responsibility of the project developer, if practices are discontinued for example, or simply the result of natural hazards, enhanced by climate change (forest diebacks or fires, for instance). Various tools, here referred to as “liability mechanisms”, already exist to prevent these risks at global level: discount on the number of credits generated, buffer, up-front insurance, etc.

In addition to these mechanisms, Europe -in the different provisional versions of the regulation- also considers the use of temporary certificates to deal with the risk of reversal. This raises a number of questions:

The methodological translation of this temporary certificate concept will therefore be crucial if we do not want to discourage private stakeholders to finance carbon farming.

Safeguards for environmental integrity.

The provisionally adopted regulation requires carbon farming projects to generate at least a biodiversity co-benefit. This is an interesting concept to improve the environmental integrity of the scheme, but its practical implementation will be complex given the lack of consensual and operational indicators for measuring biodiversity.

On another issue, the legislators claim that they want to encourage practice changes, while rewarding the front runners of carbon farming. These are two laudable objectives, which might however be difficult to reconcile within the same instrument for the same uses. Unless Europe tolerates the creation of windfall effects, which would then be incompatible with the additionality criteria required by carbon markets.

Pragmatic view for the double counting between country and company

The outcome of the trilogue clearly indicates that the certificates will contribute to European Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and not to those of any other state. This is in line with the proposals made by I4CE over the last ten years, which considers that contributions to national or European mitigation targets are legitimate and necessary, and do not prevent voluntary buyers from claiming funding. There is no double-counting as there are only compliant climate targets for the States in the Paris agreement. This principle has been applied for the last 5 years for the Label bas-carbone without altering the environmental integrity of the carbon contributors or of the French State.

Towards a variety of uses for the certificates?

Europe has chosen to leave the question of the certificates’ uses outside of this Regulation. The framework for their use is provided by other texts, notably the Green Claims Directive. Regulation of climate claims will have to be an important part of dedicated European legislation to avoid greenwashing scandals. While carbon certification tools have mostly been used in voluntary carbon markets until now, this European framework can be extremely useful to help direct other types of funding towards projects which guarantee their positive climate impact. Europe is opening up this promising avenue by explaining that certificates can be used in a variety of ways: public subsidies, voluntary carbon markets and, in the future, compliance markets. This openness is essential because the need to finance the transition of agriculture and forestry is so great that it will be necessary to combine sources. But the rules of the game will have to be clearly set out so that this different funding types can be combined effectively. A pragmatic vision will therefore be needed so that both value chain actors and actors outside the value chain can contribute and finance the transition. I4CE‘s proposals, based on the experience of the Label bas-carbone, provide answers that could be useful at European level.

The work has just begun

The provisional regulation provides an ambitious framework that is unique at a continental scale. However, many methodological issues have been left to the Commission and the expert group to be released in delegated acts. As the devil lies in the details, the relevance and integrity of the system will be in the hands of the Commission, which will have to strike the right balance between ambition and operationality. The next few months will be crucial in determining which methodologies are prioritised in the Commission’s calendar. I4CE will be keen to show that methodologies from the land sector should be at the top of the pile, particularly if they are no-regrets, rich in environmental co-benefits or relevant for adaptation to climate change. In this respect, the Horizon Europe INFORMA project will provide technical recommendations for the certification of forestry projects. At a time when national standards continue to gain momentum (Label bas-carbone in France) or are being developed (Ireland, Portugal), the new European framework will also need to seek complementarity with these schemes and give stakeholders a clearer idea of how the different levels fit together.

The Carbon Farming Summit in Valencia and the Spring expert group meeting will be two key moments in the coming months to make progress on the methodological implementation of this new framework.

Unlocking the secrets of forests as carbon sinks: innovative tools to measure forests’ climate mitigation potential

By Sofie Van Winckel & Arne Van Wolputte

How can we maximise the carbon stocks and carbon sequestration potential of forests – by managing or not managing them? And how can carbon Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) be made effective and affordable as part of the proposed EU Carbon Removal Certification Framework (CRCF) regulation? KU Leuven’s MSc students Arne and Sofie are on a journey to answer these complex questions using different high-tech tools, including the Arboreal App, an iPad with LIDAR and a computer model based on satellite and field data. Read on and join them in uncovering the secrets of climate mitigation in INFORMA’s case studies!


Picture this: as the first light of dawn gently spills over the horizon, you emerge from your tent to behold a breathtaking panorama – a lush valley stretching out beneath the canopy of a verdant forest. We are two Belgian students, Arne and Sofie, and this was one of the captivating scenes that greeted us during the fieldwork of our master’s thesis in the Catalan INFORMA demo site, near the majestic Pyrenees. Energized by a nourishing breakfast, we geared up, laced our hiking boots, and set off eagerly into the wilderness to uncover its mysteries.

Walking in the forest, everyone observes different things. Maybe you notice the different bird songs, the cool temperature in summer, or the beauty of spring flowers. However, even far beyond the experiential wonders, the forest offers us a multitude of services. Climate regulation is one of those services that is especially crucial in current times of climate warming. Excessive emissions of greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide (CO2) by fossil fuel combustion, deforestation and forest degradation, are disturbing the natural cycle of carbon. Its heat-trapping properties cause an increase in the earth’s temperature at such a high speed that you can notice the differences even within the timespan of your own life. It is in this context that forests can come to the rescue, as so-called ‘nature-based solutions’. Trees and other plants take up atmospheric carbon in the form of CO2 through photosynthesis. In this way, they store the carbon in their biomass; this process is called ‘carbon sequestration’. Like that, forest ecosystems can absorb about 27% of the annual fossil fuel emissions worldwide, while they store already 45% of the terrestrial carbon.

The amount of carbon that is stored in a forest depends on complex relationships between species composition, the disturbance history of the site, the tree age, forest structure etc. Notice that we can influence all these parameters through forest management! This is especially the case for above-ground biomass, which includes stems, branches and leaves of trees. Through our research at KU Leuven, we want to answer the following research questions:

  1. How might the LiDAR scanner included in recent iPad devices be leveraged to assess above-ground biomass?
  2. What is the influence of forest management on the above-ground carbon stock in a forest?
  3. What is the influence of forest management on the above-ground carbon sequestration in a forest?

The first research question is the focus of Arne’s research, while Sofie tries to find an answer to questions 2 and 3.

Carbon markets as a climate mitigation tool

To answer the first research question, Arne has to study the economic context of his work. Carbon markets offer potential for mitigating climate change, but their reliability depends on effective measuring of carbon. Unfortunately, that’s the crux of the matter. Making Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) more affordable while maintaining sufficient reliability is therefore imperative.

In the quest for more effective climate action, the European Commission has proposed the Carbon Removal Certification Framework (CRCF) regulation. This framework aims to address the current lack of a robust certification scheme by laying down rules for MRV based on four key quality criteria: quantification, additionality, long-term storage, and sustainability (QU.A.L.ITY). While the CRCF sets out to improve transparency in carbon markets, challenges persist, particularly in establishing cost-effective monitoring methods. Although the framework isn’t expected until May 2025, the technical readiness for MRV is essential for stakeholders investing in climate solutions.

A novel app-based approach, called Arboreal Forest has potential to fulfill this call. The Swedish app can be installed on any mobile device with a built-in LiDAR, such as the iPhone 13 Pro and the iPad Pro. Armed with both traditional tools – a trusty tape measure and vertex – and the cutting-edge application, Arne ventured into Belgium’s Brabants Wouden National Park and the forests surrounding the Segre-Rialb basin, in the Spanish Pyrenees. The goal was clear: to determine the accuracy and cost efficiency of inventorying with the Arboreal Forest app, using conventional forest biomass assessment as a benchmark.

Carbon stocks vs. carbon sequestration

While Arne was focusing on the first Research question, Sofie investigated the second and third.  These may look similar, but there is an important difference stock and sequestration. In unmanaged forests, stands typically consist of older trees compared to a managed forest, where trees are harvested when they reach a certain age or size. Young trees grow faster, and in this growth process they sequester carbon faster than old trees. However, this sequestered carbon does not stay in the forest, but leaves the forest as wood products. In an unmanaged forest, the carbon remains stored in the trees until they degrade.

This logic reflects the scientific consensus that existed for a long time: carbon sequestration rates are higher in managed forests, carbon stocks are higher in unmanaged forests. During the last decades however, several studies countered this idea with several findings. Unmanaged forests would still continue to sequester carbon, because they keep growing even at an older age. Moreover, their young trees would grow at a speed surpassing the rate of decay observed in older ones. Forest management can also be seen as an opportunity to optimize carbon stock in a forest by choosing specific species and reducing competition among trees. Moreover, it can protect the forest for climate change related disturbances like wildfires thus avoiding potential massive releases of carbon. Until now, a lot of controversy exists about the subject; the INFORMA Forest Management Platform, a large European dataset of unmanaged forest patches, paired with nearby managed patches, to be launched soon on the INFORMA website, will offer opportunities to obtain clarity.

To manage or not to manage? That is the question

Sofie is comparing carbon stock and sequestration between managed and unmanaged patches from the INFORMA Forest Management Platform, more particularly in  the Brabantse Wouden NP (Belgium) and the Segre-Rialb Basin (Spain). She calculates the carbon stock from the tree stem diameter and the tree height, measured in the field, using so-called ‘allometric relationships’. Using these field data, she can calibrate a model using open access Sentinel-2 satellite images to estimate above-ground biomass in unmeasured forest areas. The above-ground biomass is then directly related to the above-ground carbon stock. By comparing the stock over a time period since 2015 (when the Sentinel-2 mission was launched), she will derive the sequestration rate. To manage or not to manage: that is the question that this study will help to solve in regard to climate mitigation.

Between August and October 2023, with the valuable aid and support of Centre de la Propietat Forestal (CPF) and our mentors at the KU Leuven, we conducted the field measurements, and final results of the research are expected in May 2024. These results will guide policy makers and forest managers in using the full potential of the forest as a nature-based solution to climate warming. By embracing innovative, technological approaches, we are paving the way for a more sustainable future. Imagine the impact of streamlined biomass assessment on conservation efforts, forest management, and climate change mitigation! Together, let’s explore the possibilities and strive for a world where technology works hand in hand with nature to safeguard our planet’s precious resources.

German delegation explores cooperation with Valencia on the topic of Sustainable Forest Management

In the framework of the cooperation agreement between the regions of Sachsen-Anhalt (Germany) and Valencia (Spain), the INFORMA team at UPV (Polytechnic University of Valencia) welcomed this January a seven-member delegation from Germany to discuss potential areas of collaboration, including the topic of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM).

While UPV was represented by members of its research group ICTvsCC (Information and Communication Technologies versus Climate Change), the German delegation was composed of representatives of the Ministry of Economy, Energy, Climate Protection and Environment of Sachsen-Anhalt (MWU Sachsen-Anhalt), from academia, the private sector, among others. The delegation was led by Mr Uwe Zischkale, director general of Energy, Sustainability and Structural Change at the MWU Sachsen-Anhalt.

On Tuesday, 16 January, the delegation visited the Valencian municipality of Enguera, known for its forest wealth and the sustainable forest management practices that have been in place for years. During this visit, Professor José-Vicente Oliver-Villanueva, coordinator of INFORMA, explained the idiosyncrasy of the region’s forests, their vulnerability to climate change and the positive effect of implementing SFM to address these risks. Fernando Pradells from AMUFOR (Valencian Association of Forestry Municipalities) also shared his experience and knowledge, highlighting the need to demand SFM as a goal and not as a means, by which value is given to the bioeconomy with tangible products.

The following day, a meeting took place at UPV and featured a presentation of the projects in which the ICTvsCC research group is involved, including INFORMA. Among other subjects, the topic of the certification of carbon offset markets as a means of financing forest ecosystem services, explored in the context of INFORMA, was of great interest to the German delegation, as well as sustainable forest management practices adopted in the project’s case studies and prognosis of how they may change in future scenarios.

Webinar: Supporting Europe’s forests through Sustainable Forest Management and carbon certification

EIT Climate-KIC, in cooperation with its INFORMA consortium partners, warmly invites you to the first open webinar and discussion on “Supporting Europe’s forests through Sustainable Forest Management and carbon certification”. 

The webinar and discussion provide a virtual platform to share key insights and current (best) practices around sustainable forest management and forest carbon certification, as well as to learn more about INFORMA and how to collaborate with us further. 

Date: Thursday 7th December 2023
Time: 09:30 – 11:30 CET
Location: Microsoft Teams

Webinar agenda

Time (CET)Session
09:30-09:40Welcome, agenda overview, and intro question
09:40-09:50Presentation of INFORMA research project
09:50-10:20SESSION 1 Presentation by content expert: Forest carbon certification methodologies  

Speaker: Julia Grimault, Team Lead, Forest-based sector, carbon certification, Institute for Climate Economics (I4CE)  

Discussion: How can we build a Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) framework in carbon certification that is robust enough to ensure transparent projects, but also cost-effective and implementable? What are the methods to monitor this carbon sequestration?
10:20-10:50SESSION 2 Presentation by content expert: Carbon storage in wood products certification  

Speaker: Samy Porteron, Programme Manager, ECOS 

Discussion: Forests offer huge potential in carbon storage, sink, and sequestration. How can forest carbon certification support climate-smart forestry economies?
10:50 – 11:20SESSION 3 Presentation by content expert: Managing supply and demand in a timber marketplace  

Speaker: Samuel Welsh, Forest Carbon Ltd
11:20 – 11:30What next? How to get involved Co-creating sessions on improved carbon certification in Europe

Climate-adapted forest management in high altitude: the INFORMA Northern Limestone Alps case study

High mountain peaks, rich wildlife and two national parks surround the INFORMA case study in Austria: the Forest Management District of Göstling, in the Northern Limestone Alps.  The district is part of the Prealps Unit of the Austrian Federal Forests, comprising a remote area of approximately 10,000 ha mainly covered by mountain forests with altitudes ranging from 600-1800 meters above sea level.

Although undeniably scenic, this vast forested landscape is also marked by contradictions. Historically, the naturally occurring Norway Spruce has been favoured by foresters due to its superior growth  performance and ease of management. But as climate change worsens and increases the occurrence of droughts, which weaken trees’ natural defence mechanisms, the species is becoming a common target of destructive bark beetle outbreaks.

As Norway Spruce is particularly vulnerable to climate change, the overall strategic aim of forest management is to reduce its share in species composition and establish mixed-species forest stands. To achieve this, measures are necessary to minimise another less obvious disturbance: ungulate browsing. The impact of ungulate browsing constitutes a severe problem for forest regeneration – both in the case of natural regeneration and of tree planting – and may require costly measures to protect tree saplings of species such as silver fir and beech.

Current management in the Austrian case study focuses on timber production in certain areas and on nature conservation in others, such as nature reserves where there is no human intervention or very low-intensity management. In managed areas, the main goal is wood production and the most common approach to harvesting is the strip-wise shelterwood method, in which mature trees are removed in a series of cuttings, enabling the stand to regenerate below the partial shelter of the remaining old trees. Regeneration may also be actively supported by planting. Other forest management goals include wildlife management, hunting as well as protection from gravitational hazards (avalanches, rockfall, erosion, and landslides).

The project activities in the area are led by the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU).

Natural wonders in rapid transition: the Boreal Forests of North Karelia

Boreal forests are vast ecosystems encompassing one-third of the world’s forested area. When covered by snow in the winter months, these forests have a peaceful and calming appearance, evoking feelings of wonder for their natural beauty and a sense of solitude amidst their vast stretches of wilderness. But appearances can be deceiving: although they seem tranquil on the surface, boreal forests are in reality undergoing profound changes.

Northern latitudes, where boreal forests occur, are particularly susceptible to the effects of climate change. This means that the biodiversity and carbon balance of these forests are being altered more rapidly and severely than those of their southern counterparts.

One example is the INFORMA case study in North Karelia (Lieksa), the easternmost region of Finland, led by the University of Eastern Finland. There, forests are dominated by Scots pine, which covers 93% of the forest area, followed by Norway Spruce (5,2%) and broadleaved trees (1,4%). Trees rely on long periods of frozen soil, which help anchor them to the ground during winter storms. The soil freeze period, however, is becoming shorter due to the warmer climate, which increases the occurrence of wind damage to forests – especially to the shallow-rooted species Norway spruce but also to Scots pine. Broadleaved trees are without leaves from late autumn to early spring – the windiest time of the year – and therefore suffer less wind damage.

Another climate impact suffered in the region are bark beetle outbreaks, which will likely become more frequent, affecting particularly Norway spruce trees. Such pest outbreaks may have cascading effects with wind damages, especially if wind-damaged trees are left in forests and not timely harvested, becoming a target of bark beetles.

Although forest regeneration and restoration can help reestablish disturbed forests, browsing of young trees by moose (especially of pine and broadleaves) prevents regeneration and is another typical forest management challenge in the region. Therefore, proper adaptive forest management practices are needed to tackle these challenges and enhance forest resilience to climate change.

North Karelia case study representative stand image (Photos by Harri Silvennoinen – UEF)

Current forest management focuses on either timber production, recreation, or nature conservation, depending on the sub-area. The intensity of forest management ranges from relatively intensive to less intensive but also includes areas where no human intervention takes place. Where recreation plays a more pivotal role, management intensity is low. In this case, selective or gap cuttings are performed and forests have trees of different ages (uneven-aged forests). Forest management may even be completely abandoned. If nature conservation is the main aim, then no management measures are allowed. Where timber production is the focus, even-aged and uneven-aged forest management approaches are applied.

Boosting forest resilience in the area will involve increasing the proportion of mixed forests which are considered less vulnerable to natural hazards than coniferous monocultures. This could be done on sites where planted or seeded pine and planted spruce could grow together with each other or with naturally regenerated broadleaved trees. For example, on medium fertile sites, a mixture of pine, spruce and broadleaves forest might be created by simultaneously planting Norway spruce and seeding Scots pine and allowing naturally-born broadleaves to also grow there as a mixture. The increase of mixed forests can also be obtained by planting broadleaved species on medium fertile and fertile sites and letting coniferous (especially spruce) grow there naturally.

However, a major part of the study area is characterized by a low fertility soil type, where Scots pine has better growth performance than Norway spruce and broadleaves. Therefore, in these locations, Scots pine should be preferred as a main tree species.

INFORMA proposes spatially explicit portfolios of multipurpose forest management practices, considering the regional circumstances and targets set for forest management, as well as the need to adapt to and mitigate climate change. The resilience of forests and multifunctionality will be increased in a sustainable way by utilising stand-level information in forest simulation modelling and scenario analyses, and through diverse dissemination activities of research findings. This will provide decision makers such as forest managers, owners and forest authorities with science-based management options that cater for their needs and preferences in times of climate change.

Banner photo: Hendrik Morkel/Unsplash

INFORMA’s Scientific Committee Chair hands Foresters Board award to Spain’s former PM Felipe González

Destructive forest fires are increasing in Spain, and so is awareness of their connection to climate change. A topic worth more visibility, however, is how societal factors such as the abandonment of rural areas contribute to catalyse forest fires. With this in mind, the Spanish Board of Forest Engineers (Colegio Oficial de Ingenieros de Montes – COIM) distinguished the work of former Spanish Prime Minister Felipe González in drawing public attention to the issue. The award of COIM Honorary Member was handed to González this October in Madrid by INFORMA’s Scientific Committee Chairman and COIM dean, Eduardo Rojas Briales, from the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV).

According to the COIM, González has worked since 2016 to disseminate the circumstances surrounding the problem of forest fires and, simultaneously, promoted practical solutions, emphasising the importance of sustainable forest management and the development of the rural economy as the most effective means of prevention.

Eduardo Rojas Briales said „This is a well-deserved recognition because the informative work carried out by Felipe González is in line with the work that the COIM has been doing for years. We have always shared in our institution the concern about forest fires, but in recent years, this concern has intensified due to the significant growth of our forest area. It is worth remembering that Spain is not experiencing deforestation, but quite the opposite. This is largely due to the abandonment of rural areas. The lack of timely action exposes us to the serious risk of facing mega-fires that could jeopardise everything we achieved in recent decades”.

For the COIM, it is essential to focus efforts on land planning and management. In this sense, Felipe González emphasised that „when the degrees reached by this mass of fire exceed a thousand degrees, as if it were the La Palma Volcano, there is no water to combat it. All the water that falls on it simply evaporates before it hits the ground, but everyone is calling for more seaplanes, more helicopters… and specialists know that they are not working. This is really one of the things that shocked me the most because I was really focused for a long time on the technology and the available means of firefighting”.

The Board also believes that measures such as revitalising forest management and supporting extensive livestock farming are essential to reduce the intensity of fires should they occur. Furthermore, it stresses the importance of encouraging extensive farming to create and maintain effective separations between forest areas, while at the same time combating the abandonment of the rural environment in a coherent manner. As Felipe González commented: „We have to know this, because it is essential for governance and for the media, the landscape and the countryside. Local people will not always be right, but you have to listen to what they have to say. There is nothing that protects the forest more, and nothing that improves the fight against forest fires more than a landscape that is aware of what it is worth, especially if it has a communal value”.

Finally, the COIM considers it necessary to address the barriers that hinder the implementation of these actions, such as excessive restrictions on primary activities or the lack of management of small properties in the adverse context of climate change.

Source: Adapted from COIM press release „Felipe González, nombrado Colegiado de Honor del Colegio Oficial de Ingenieros de Montes„, 6 October 2023.

Where cultural heritage, climate adaptation and Sustainable Forest Management meet: the Carpathian Mountain Forests

Our Romanian case study, representative of Carpathian Mountain Forests, is embedded in a complex socio-cultural context. The Râșca Forest District is situated in a region in Romania that is home to several historical monasteries, hermitage sites and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. INFORMA’s research in the area, led by the University Stefan cel Mare of Suceava (USV), will create new approaches to climate-adapted forest management that take stakeholders’ needs and perspectives into account. Keep reading to find out more about the case study!

The Râșca Forest District is located in the Eastern part of the Carpathian Mountains, in an area of 13,000 ha owned by the state and managed by the Râșca Forest District Administration, a part of the Romanian National Forest Administration. There, traditional communities live in close proximity to the forest and many residents rely on it for their income, generated by forestry, the tourism and wood sectors and other forest-related activities such as selling firewood, handcrafted furniture and sculptures of religious items.

The broadleaved and coniferous forests in the district consist mostly of beech, Norway spruce, and silver fir, both in mixed and pure forest stands. Damages caused by windstorms and pest disturbances, as well as the lack of forest management infrastructure (such as roads), are the most relevant management challenges currently faced in the area. As climate change increases the frequency of forest disturbances, the adaptation of management approaches to new climate scenarios will be required – a mission to be tackled by INFORMA.

Romanian forests are classified into three main management types: strictly protected forests, where no wood harvest is allowed; production forests and protected forests. In protected forests, the main management objective is to deliver ecosystem services, which vary from area to area, for instance, water and soil protection, protection against climate change impacts, scientific interest, and biodiversity conservation. More than 26,7% of state-owned forests belong to the soil protection category.

In productive forests, the regular management is based on long rotation periods of over 120 years. Natural regeneration is obtained using both shelterwood cutting – a timber harvesting method focused on establishing forest regeneration – and group selection, which results in the removal of small groups of trees.  Consequently, the aboveground biomass stored in these forests is quite high. Within the Râșca Forest District, an area of 1,000 hectares is managed with a lower harvesting intensity than average, in order to protect it against soil erosion.

There are two municipalities in the Râșca river basin: Râșca and Bogdanesti, with 9000 inhabitants. The area, however, has been to some extent affected by rural exodus and migration of workers abroad, a tendency impacting the entire region.

The most important benefits of forests are the ecosystem services delivered to the community and society in general. Climate change affects forest resources and might impact culturally and economically important plant and animal species, which in turn affects the community development, culture and economy. Large-scale disturbances such as windthrows are expected, with consequences on forestry and the wood industry. Forests also have socio-ecological importance and climate changes can shape the effectiveness of forests protection. Therefore, INFORMA’s research in the Romanian case study should bring information needed to proactively adopt management measures able to preserve the current level of the ecosystem services delivery.